Current models indicate that in the short term – the next 100 years – high-energy storm events and other forms of extreme weather will become more frequent as ocean and atmospheric circulation systems change. Depending on how much warming occurs in that timeframe, there will be some flooding of shorelines (up to a few metres) and coastal defenses will face more pressure. Some studies have suggested that if atmospheric CO2 levels pass a certain point then that will trigger warming that could shut down normal ocean currents in the Atlantic such as the Gulf Stream. That would ultimately result in dramatic cooling in Ireland and Western Europe by 5 degrees C or more. However the chance of that happening is considered low – ca. 5%.